There are only a few days left until the end of 2022, andEastFruitAnalysts summarize the year's results. What did the participants of the Horticultural Enterprise of Uzbekistan remember this year and what important events can be recorded in it?
Weather surprises in early spring caused severe damage to the stone fruit crop for the second year in a row, but unlike last year only a few stone fruit varieties suffered losses – almonds, apricots and cherries. When harvesting other types of fruit, these anomalies were circumvented. As a result, prices for almonds, apricots and cherries have been high while exports have been low. At the same time, the harvest of many types of fruit was high, which reduced prices and enabled record exports.
The summer of 2022 brought another unpleasant surprise for agricultural producers of Central Asian countries - the intense heat "inflated" the price of tomatoes and caused a deterioration in the quality of apples, the harvest of which was a record high that year. In addition, a disappointing forecast has been released by climatologists that such unseasonably hot weather in Central Asia will become the new normal.
However, in 2022 we experienced a “carrot bubble”.EastFruitAnalysts warned market participants against it. At the same time, carrots gave way to onions, and Uzbek onion producers made good money this year. In addition, cabbage was back in trend, and Uzbekistan updated the records in terms of export volumes of all major cabbage varieties.
Potatoes and bananas remain Uzbekistan's largest imports in the fruit and vegetable segment.EastFruitAnalysts expect the import volume of commercial potatoes to fall for the first time in recent years, as well as a slowdown in the growth rate of banana consumption.
In connection with the changed geopolitical situation in the world, Uzbekistan, for obvious reasons, has increased efforts to find alternative routes and diversify international transport corridors. The first results were not long in coming. In addition, in December 2022, the country seriously took up the issue of groundwater protection, whichEastFruitExperts have repeatedly drawn attention to this.
A mixed picture emerged regarding the expansion of foreign players in Uzbekistan's retail market. So, first things first.
Since the material is large,EastFruitExperts divided it into two parts. The first part includes the TOP 4 main events andthe second has 6 more.
- Weather anomalies in March caused severe damage to cherry, apricot and almond crops
In the early spring of 2022, the weather brought an unpleasant surprise to growers of vegetables, fruits and nuts in Uzbekistan for the second consecutive year at around the same time of year.
The first half of March 2022 was unprecedented in terms of intensity and duration of rain. From March 5 to March 17 in the capital of Uzbekistan there were almost 2 monthly rains, and in the mountainous and foothill areas there were 2-3 times more rain than usual. During this time it rained almost every day with short interruptions. But the weather surprises didn't stop there, because the rainy weather was replaced by a cold snap, which was unusual for this time of year. In the second half of March, there was a sharp drop in air temperaturethroughout the country.
Long periods of rain and the cold snap that followed, which was unusual for this time of year, caused serious damage, especially to early-flowering stone fruits – almonds and apricots – and to cherries.
As you know, in the Fergana Valley, the main cherry region of Uzbekistan, cherries bloom in March, but the weather did not help their pollination. As a result, the 2022 cherry harvest was twice as low as the previous year. The hardest hit were medium- and late-ripening cherry varieties, from whose harvest cherries of 26 mm and larger caliber are put on the market. Early cherry cultivars were much less damaged by the weather in March because they were pollinated at the onset of these anomalies, but local early cherry cultivars are small in caliber, less than 26mm.
As a result, the 2022 cherry season in Uzbekistan was short, mainly due to a significant reduction in the harvest period of varieties of medium and late ripening varieties, and prices were much higher than last year, especially for large-caliber cherries. The physical export volume of cherries from Uzbekistan in the 2022 season has decreased significantly. At the same time, the share of small-calibre cherries in total exports was significantly higher than in previous years.
Cherries are one of Uzbekistan's most important export goods in the fruit segment. In the 2022 season, Uzbekistan exported25,300 tonsCherries, that is 2.4 times less than last year and almost 20% less than in 2020.
The damage to the apricot crop from the weather anomalies in March was much greater than to cherries. Uzbek apricot growers were unlucky for the second year in a row. Unusual warming in the winter months and subsequent frosts in late February and the first half of March 2021 destroyed most of the apricot crop in Uzbekistan. The consequences of the weather damage were low yields, high prices and a sharp drop in exports.
In general, a similar picture was repeated in the 2022 season with harvest volumes, prices and exports of apricots.
At the beginning of the season, i. H. in the second half of May, average wholesale prices for apricots in Uzbekistan were 1.5-2 times lower than last year. This is explained by the fact that at that time apricots come to the market mainly from the southern regions of the country, as well as early varieties from the central part of the country, the harvest of which suffered from weather anomalies to a much lesser extent. Apricots in the southern regions of the country and early apricot varieties in the central part of the country had already bloomed and been pollinated before the March weather anomalies.
However, with the reduction in supply in the market for apricots from the southern regions and early varieties from other regions, their wholesale prices began to rise. Medium-ripe apricot varieties were hardest hit. Their average wholesale prices in June were 1.5 times higher than last year, and in July they were 13-40% above last year's record level.
Overall, the average wholesale prices for apricots in the 2022 season were two to eight times higher than in the 2020 season, when there were no weather anomalies.
With such prices and quantities available for export, exports have been correspondingly low for the second year in a row. In the 2022 season, physical exports only amounted to5,800 tonsand were the lowest in the last 6 years. It is worth noting that until 2021 Uzbekistan actively increased the export of apricots, and in 2020 the country became the second largest exporter of fresh apricots in the world after Spain.
Almond harvest in Uzbekistan in 2022 was also low due to weather anomalies in March. As a result, the average wholesale prices for inshell almonds at the end of the harvest season in late September - early October were 1.5 times higher than last year. On December 20, 2022, average wholesale prices amounted to UZS 95,000/kg ($8.5), which is 2.4 times higher than on the same day in 2021.
At such prices, exports of 2022 almonds fell sharply. The almond harvesting season in Uzbekistan starts at the end of July and early varieties are becoming available in the domestic market. According to preliminary official data, from the beginning of July to December 20, 2022, exports of inshell almonds amounted to only97.5 tons, which is 4.7 times less than in the same period last year. The export of peeled almonds amounted to38.5 tons, which is 4 times less compared to the same period last year.
- Temperature records increased tomato prices and deteriorated apple quality
The summer of 2022 brought another unpleasant surprise for agricultural producers in Uzbekistan. The unusual heat, which lasted about three weeks in July, affected the work of the agricultural industry. The temperature in the shade exceeded 45-46 degrees Celsius, which led to excessive plant stress, lack of water, sunburn on fruits and a sharp deterioration in product quality. Despite their best efforts, vegetable farmers spoke of a lack of plant growth and even total crop failures. Growers have reported that some cannot carry out fruit processing in orchards at this temperature.
Abnormally hot weather caused high prices fortomatoes– significantly reduced their supply on the domestic market of Uzbekistan, as they literally dried up in the fields.
As a result, tomato prices in Uzbekistan were at record highs in July and the following months. If in July and August 2022 the average wholesale prices for tomatoes were twice as high as in the previous year, in September this gap widened and the average wholesale prices were 2.5-3 times higher than in the same period in 2021.
Furthermore, a disappointmentPredictions by climate researcherswas released in late July 2022, claiming that such hot weather in Central Asia is becoming the new normal and posing a serious challenge to agricultural producers in that region.
EastFruitExperts have repeatedly pointed out that climate change is having serious negative consequences for farmers around the world. Vegetable growers in Central Asia should pay attention to different options for growing in greenhouses or net houses.
The first steps were taken in 2022 – the biggestmodern complex of lightweight nethouse greenhousesbuilt in Asaka district of Andijan region of Uzbekistan of 111 ha. By the beginning of October 2022, ten product varieties, including tomatoes, had already been harvested on 20 hectares of the greenhouse complex. When the yield of tomatoes grown in the traditional way outdoors is around 20-30 t/ha, in Nethouse greenhouses it has reached 120-130 t/ha. A drip irrigation system was installed there, which, together with covering the soil with a special net, can reduce water consumption for irrigation up to 10 times compared to the traditional irrigation method (along furrows) in open fields and greatly reduce fertilizer consumption.
In addition, in the summer of 2022 scientists from the Research Institute of Vegetables, Melons and Potatoes of Uzbekistantested about 30 varieties and hybrids of tomatoesfor resilience in unseasonably hot weather when grown outdoors. To preserve the harvest in such conditions, Uzbek growers “covered” the tomatoes with other plants, shading the soil with dry corn stalks and light-stemmed plants, such as straw about 5 cm thick, and watering them at night to preserve moisture. Among the tested varieties, “Bobkat F1”, “Tomsk F1”, “Lojean F1”, “Red Stone”, “Seraj F1”, “Independence-28”, “Rio Grande” withstood the hot weather conditions of July and showed themselves well Results.
The effects of the March weather onAppleThe harvest was minimal. Farmers expected a good and maybe even a bumper crop of autumn apple varieties in 2022, in contrast to last season when two waves of frost affected production and fruit quality. According to farmers, it was the lack of an excess crop volume in 2021 that served as another reason for the formation of a good crop this season.
However, the unseasonably hot weather of July 2022 has made its own adjustments. High temperatures led to ultra-early autumn ripening of apple varieties that had not yet reached the required mass, and farmers had to harvest and sell them. In addition, there were many early apples of local early varieties and cheap imported apples on the market at that time. As a result, at the end of July 2022, wholesale apple prices in Uzbekistan were more than three times lower than in the same period last year, and retail apple prices were on average two times lower.
In the following months, apple prices in Uzbekistan remained low. The average wholesale prices for one of the popular Golden Delicious apple varieties in the 2022 season were significantly lower than in the previous year and roughly corresponded to the price level of 2019.
However, a large harvest and low apple prices have enabled a sharp increase in exports compared to the lean 2021. The mass harvest of early apples of the new crop in Uzbekistan will begin in mid-May, and the first exports of early apples will begin. exported to Uzbekistan16,600 tonsof fresh apples worth$6.5 millionin May-November 2022, which in physical terms is 2.5 times more than the same period last year and close to the exports in the same period of 2020.
- Big harvest and record export volume
March weather anomalies had almost no impact on other fruit crops.
A large harvest of figs, pears, plums, peaches and nectarines in Uzbekistan in 2022 and the resulting low prices for them made it possible to greatly increase their export volumes. In addition, the high yield of watermelons and melons and relatively low prices made it possible to significantly increase their exports.
Frischfigswere in 2022 a highly demanded export good of Uzbekistan in the fruit segment. In the current season, the physical export volume of fresh figs exceeded the total volume of their exports in the last five years by 7 times! The export season of figs from Uzbekistan in 2022 started in the second decade of June and ended in the second decade of September. exported to Uzbekistan7 200 metric tonsof fresh figs worth$1.9 millionin June-September, which was a record. Read more in the article “Fig breakthrough: a historical record of Uzbekistan in the export of fresh figs“.
pearswere also in high demand for exports from Uzbekistan in 2022. The export of the first batches of Uzbek fresh pears started in the second half of June with early varieties. According to official data, in June-November 2022 Uzbekistan exported a record amount of fresh pears:5,200 tonsWert$2.3 million, while in physical terms pear exports have not exceeded 1 000 tons in previous years.
Deliveries of the first batches ofplumsof the new 2022 harvest from Uzbekistan started on May 10th. The country has exported48,500 tonsof fresh plums worth$23.5 millionin the last six months, which is 2.5 times more in kind than in the same period last year and almost 11% more than the previous record in 2019. Read more about the results of the Uzbek plum export seasonhere.
The currentPfirsich/NectarinesThe season in Uzbekistan was also characterized by relatively low prices, a sharp increase in exports and record earnings from exports. exported to Uzbekistan76,700 tonsworth of peaches and nectarines$68.1 millionin the 2022 season. Export earnings in 2022 were a record for at least five years, beating the previous record of 2020 by 11%.
grapesare the largest export position of Uzbekistan in the fruit and vegetable segment. This year, the season for exporting fresh table grapes from the new harvest began in the second decade of June, about a week earlier than last year. Uzbekistan has exported a record amount of grapes in the last six months since the start of the export season.
According to preliminary data, Uzbekistan exported220,100 tonsof fresh table grapes$184.8 millionJune through December 20, 2022, which is 5% more physically and 29% more in value than the same period last year. Considering that in the same period of 2021 a record amount of fresh table grapes was exported, Uzbekistan updated the record this season. Read more about the geography of exports of Uzbek table grapes of the 2022 harvesthere.
In addition, Uzbekistan updated the export data set fordried grapes (raisins)in 2022. From January to December 20, 2022, the export volume of Uzbek raisins was81,400 tonsWert$81.4 million, which was physically 15% more than the previous record volume of 2019.
*Dates for 2022: from January 1st to December 20th
Uzbekistan is the largest exporter of table grapes in Central Asia and is among the TOP-15 largest exporters in the world. Unfortunately, export of Uzbek table grapes is only limited by the post-Soviet countries - the four EAEU countries account for about 99% of exports.
EastFruitAnalysts have repeatedly spoken of the need to replace grape varieties, renovate plantations and plant more promising and sought-after table grape varieties. The competitiveness of grape varieties grown in Uzbekistan in foreign markets leaves much to be desired, including the possibility of entering new markets. OnArticle ranking of the most popular table grape varieties of UzbekistanReleased on May 15, 2021, it sparked discussion among winemakers and showed that the industry needs to act urgently if it is to maintain its position in this competitive market.
In 2022, the first steps were taken to replace native varieties with seedless varieties of table grapes of foreign selection. Currently, in special greenhouses of the National Center for Knowledge and Innovation in Agriculture in the Tashkent region of Uzbekistan, seedlings of seven table grape varieties of foreign selection are grown by the “in vitro” method, including Venus, Vanessa, Romulus, Lakemont and Ximrod. These seedlings will be planted in trial fields in spring 2023 and handed over to farms for planting new grape plantations. Read more about this in our material “In Uzbekistan, seedless varieties of table grapes are being prepared for cultivation“.
In 2022, Uzbekistan also set a record for the export ofwatermelons, almost doubling last year's exports. The increase in export volume was possible primarily due to an almost double increase in the volume of deliveries to Kazakhstan and a multiple increase in the volume of deliveries to Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan.
The season of watermelon exports from Uzbekistan started on May 15-20 and ended in mid-November 2022. From the beginning of May to the end of November 2022 Uzbekistan exported81,800 tonsworth watermelons$18.1 million, which is physically 1.9 times higher than the same period in 2021 and 1.7 times higher than the record value of 2020 in the same period. Read more about ithere.
As for the export volumes ofmelonsFrom the 2022 harvest, exports also increased significantly compared to the previous year and were close to the record level of 2020. The current melon export season from Uzbekistan started in mid-May - about a week earlier than in the previous year. According to preliminary data, Uzbekistan exported from May to December 20, 202253,700 tonsof fresh melons worth$18.4 million, which in physical terms is 38% more than May-December last year and just 5% less than the record 2020 figure.
*Dates for 2022: from January 1st to December 20th
EastFruitAnalysts have repeatedly noticed and paid attention to an important trend in the fruit and vegetable sector of Uzbekistan - the increase in production and export of frozen products. In 2022, the export volume of frozen fruits and vegetables from Uzbekistan continued to grow, albeit at a slower pace than the previous year.
From January to December 20, 2022 Uzbekistan exported15,100 tonsof frozen vegetables worth$16.4 million, which is 23% more in physical terms and 73% more in terms of export earnings than in 2021.
The export volume of frozen fruit amounted to6 400worth tons$13.4 millionin the same period in 2022, which is 10% more in physical terms and 76% more in terms of export earnings than the total in 2021.
- Cabbage is back in fashion
2021 was very successful for Uzbek white cabbage producers, and in 2022 Uzbek farmers were lucky again - the year started with incredibly high prices for cabbage in almost all countries of the region. In the southernmost region of Uzbekistan – the Surkhandarya region, the harvest of white cabbage started around mid-December 2021, and the harvest continued in the first ten days of February 2022. Since this cabbage was sown in September 2021, when no one could foresee the rapid price development, the farmers left the cabbage plantation area unchanged. Vegetable growers were very satisfied – cabbage was shipped from fields at UZS 4,000/kg ($0.37), which is about 9 times higher than in the same period of 2021. However, Uzbek cabbage was mainly shipped to Belarus, Russia and Kazakhstan shipped Supply exceeded demand and prices continued to rise.
Faced with the “insane” demand for cabbage, Uzbek farmers have dramatically expanded the area planted with early cabbage, the harvest of which will begin in the first half of March. Despite theexpects unprecedented growth in early cabbage production in Uzbekistan, analysts predicted a further increase in prices on foreign markets due to the current situation in the countries of the region.
As a result, exports of white cabbage from Uzbekistan increased113,700 tonsin the first half of 2022, which is 30% more than in the same period last year.
At the end of 2022, Uzbekistan updated the record for export of white cabbage from last year. According to preliminary data, the country exported from January to December 20, 2022120,300 tonsworth white cabbage$24.7 million, which is 27% more physical and 66% more export revenue than 2021.
*Dates for 2022: from January 1st to December 20th
In addition, in recent years, Uzbekistan has actively increased the production of cauliflower and broccoli. Demand for them is growing in the domestic market, and the volume of their exports is also growing.
Uzbekistan increased the export of these cabbage varieties to a record level in 2022. According to preliminary data, the country exported from the beginning of January to December 20th22,400 tonsof cauliflower and broccoli worth$12.4 million, which is 1.8 times more in physical terms and 2 times more in terms of export earnings than 2021.
*Dates for 2022: from January 1st to December 20th
Also, Uzbekistan dramatically increased Beijing cabbage exports in 2022, reaching record levels. According to preliminary official data, the country exported from January to December 20, 20223,500 tonsWert$2.1 million, while in previous years the export volume of Beijing cabbage did not exceed 1 200 tons.
The second part is available fromshortcut.
Use of the Site Materials is free of charge if there is a direct and search engine accessible hyperlink to a specific posting on the East-Fruit.com site.